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This is to certify that Ms/ Mr. _______________________________________ of MA Psychology First Year has conducted and successfully completed the practical work in MPCL-007 Practicum: Experimental Psychology and Psychological Testing.

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APPENDIX-3

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 Introduction5-6
1Social learning theory and social cognitive theory differences, applications is violence contagious based on the above theory of Bobo doll7-10
2Article on true intelligence, based on Sternberg’s article11-15
3Thematical interview of an old-age client.16-18
4Test report on locus of control experiment19-22
5Test report on 16 PF Inventory Administration23-27
6Key points of Halo effect experiment. Application, uses the relationship between learned behavior and halo effect.28-30

INTRODUCTION ABOUT EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY & PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING

MPCL – 007 (MAPC – Ist Year).  

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Please make sure to write in abridge about these psychological testings first before starting it.

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PRACTICAL – 1

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY AND THE SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY

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INTRODUCTION

These theories try to explain learning in a social context, with the main position being that people acquire new behaviours by observation.

BOBO DOLL EXPERIMENT

Aim: Bandura (1961) conducted a controlled experimental study to investigate if social behaviours (i.e., aggression) can be acquired by observation and imitation.

Through his famous Bobo Doll Experiments Bandura came to the conclusions that are now basically the core concepts of modern social learning theory.

Learning is a remarkably complex process that is influenced by a wide variety of factors. As
most parents are probably much aware, observation can play a critical role in determining how
and what children learn. Albert Bandura proposed a social learning theory that suggests that
observation and modeling play a primary role in this process.
Bandura’s theory moves beyond behavioral theories, which suggest that all behaviors are
learned through conditioning and cognitive theories, which take into account psychological
influences such as attention and memory.

Based on the theory

Bandura identified three basic models of observational learning

Description of the Test:
Bandura along with others tested 36 boys and 36 girls from Standford University Nursery School
aged between 3 to 6 years old.
The researchers pre-tested the children for how aggressive they were by observing the children in
the nursery and judged their aggressive behaviour on four 5-point rating scales.
It was then possible to match the children in each group so that they had similar levels of
aggression in their everyday behaviour. The experiment is therefore an example of matched pairs
design.

Difference between social learning theory and social cognitive theory

There are three core concepts at the heart of social learning theory. First is the idea that people
can learn through observation. Next is the notion that internal mental states are an essential part
of this process. Finally, this theory recognizes that just because something has been learned, it
does not mean that it will result in a change in behavior.

Application of social learning theory.

Expectations: The likely outcomes of a behavior; meaning, the people behave in certain ways
because of the results they expect as well as avoiding the behavior due to the expectations.
Expectancies: the value placed on the outcome of the behavior; meaning, the certain behavior is
more likely to occur when the expectancy, or value placed on its outcome, maximizes a positive
result and minimizes a negative one.
Emotional arousal: the emotional reaction to a situation and its resulting behavior; meaning,
that in certain situations people become fearful and, when this happens, their behavior becomes
defensive in an effort to reduce the fear.

Field of education: Today, both teachers and parents recognize how important it is to model appropriate behaviors. Other classroom strategies such as encouraging children and building self-efficacy are also rooted in social learning theory.

DO YOU THINK VIOLENCE IS CONTAGIOUS?

Yes, I think violence is contagious. Just like altruism and kindness can benefit the giver and the
receiver, violence is harmful for everyone, the one doing it and the one at the receiving end.
Violence once started spreads like fire too. Violence is similar to goodness, if children can
emulate the good and kind actions of others, it will not take much time to learn one’s violent
actions. For e.g.- If a man beats up his wife repeatedly at home, and the child witnesses all this,
he will think it’s justified to be violent and may do similar acts at school or with peers.

Conclusion:

In addition to influencing other psychologists, Bandura’s social learning theory has had important implications in the field of education. Today, both teachers and parents recognize how important it is to model appropriate behaviors. Other classroom strategies such as encouraging children and building self-efficacy are also rooted in social learning theory. As Bandura observed, life would be incredibly difficult and even dangerous if you had to learn everything you know from personal experience. Observing others plays a vital role in acquiring new knowledge and skills.

By understanding how social learning theory works, you can gain a greater appreciation for the powerful role that observation plays in shaping the things we know and the things we do.

References:

Ruhl, C. (2020, July 16): definition, theories and testing. Simply Psychology. https://www.simplypsychology.org/intelligence.html.

PRACTICAL – 2

Read Sternberg’s Article and write your interpretation on True Intelligence.

Intelligence has been defined in many ways: higher level abilities (such as abstract reasoning,
mental representation, problem solving, and decision making), the ability to learn, emotional
knowledge, creativity, and adaptation to meet the demands of the environment effectively.
Psychologist Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as “the mental abilities necessary for
adaptation to, as well as shaping and selection of, any environmental context (1997, p. 1)
Intelligence is the ability to think, to learn from experience, to solve problems and to adapt to
new situations. Intelligence is important because it has an impact on many human behaviours.
The intelligence quotient (IQ) is a measure of intelligence that is adjusted for age.
Intelligence is the ability to:

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Theories of Intelligence:

Theory of Multiple Intelligences:
One of the more recent ideas to emerge is Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences.
Gardner proposed that the traditional idea of intelligence, based on IQ testing, did not fully and
accurately depict a person’s abilities. His theory proposed eight different intelligences based on
skills and abilities that are valued in different cultures:

Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: The ability to control your body movements and to handle
objects skillfully
Interpersonal intelligence: The capacity to detect and respond appropriately to the moods,
motivations, and desires of others
Intrapersonal intelligence: The capacity to be self-aware and in tune with inner feelings,
values, beliefs, and thinking processes
Logical-mathematical intelligence: The ability to think conceptually and abstractly, and the
capacity to discern logically or numerical patterns
Musical intelligence: The ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch, and timbre
Naturalistic intelligence: The ability to recognize and categorize animals, plants, and other
objects in nature

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When the Binet-Simon Scale was brought to the United States, it generated considerable interest. Stanford University psychologist Lewis Terman took Binet’s original test and standardized it using a sample of American participants. This adapted test, first published in 1916, was called the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and soon became the standard intelligence test used in the U.S.

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Wechsler Intelligence Scales:

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